關于中國傳統文化“立冬”你可能不知道的8件事

備注:www.zedulm.tw 時間:2019-11-07 10:37:04 閱讀:45 次

“黃花獨帶露,紅葉已隨風。”11月7日13時38分迎來了“立冬節氣。此時節,朔風起,地始凍,水始冰,天氣一天天變冷。你感受到冬天的氣息了嗎?








The traditional Chinese lunar calendar divides the year into 24 solar terms. Start of Winter, (Chinese: 立冬), the 19th solar term of the year, begins this year on Nov 7 and ends on Nov 21.


中國傳統農歷將一年分為24個節氣。“立冬”是24節氣中的第19個節氣,今年從11月7號開始,21號結束。




Start of Winter is the first solar term of winter, which means winter is coming and crops harvested in autumn should be stored up.


“立冬”是冬季的第一個節氣,它意味著冬天到來,秋季豐收的作物全部要儲存起來。






Here are eight things you should know about Start of Winter.


以下是關于“立冬”你要知道的八件事。






Beginning of winter or not


立冬就代表著入冬?


In ancient times, the Chinese people took the Start of Winter to be the beginning of the winter. However, in fact, the Start of Winter is not the beginning of winter in terms of meteorology. The climate every year is different, so the beginning of winter could be quite different. And with the vast territory of China, winter of every area doesn’t begin at the same time.


中國古代的人們認為立冬就是冬天開始了。事實上,農歷的“立冬”并不是氣象學上冬季的開始。每年的氣候條件不同,所以實際入冬的時間就有差異。再加上中國幅員遼闊,各地冬季開始的時間并不一致。








Welcoming the winter in ancient times


古代的迎冬活動


The four beginnings of the seasons were important festivals in ancient times. Before the Start of Winter, the ancient emperor would take a shower and have no more meat. On that day, the emperor would lead his officials to the suburbs and perform the ceremony of "welcoming the winter."


二十四節氣中的四立,在中國古代是重要的節日,在“立冬”之前,天子會戒齋沐浴,“立冬”這一天,親率群臣出郊,行“迎冬之禮”。








Eating dumplings


吃餃子


A legend has it that at the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD25-220), "Medical Saint" Zhang Zhongjing saved many people in Henan province from a typhoidepidemic and their ears’ from being frostbitten around Start of Winter.


相傳在東漢(公元25-220年)末年,“立冬”前后,很多河南省的老百姓患上了傷寒,耳朵被凍傷,“醫圣”張仲景知道后巧施妙法幫老百姓治好了傷寒和耳凍。








He cooked mutton, hot peppers and herbs to dispel the cold and increase body heat. He wrapped these ingredients into a dough skin and made them into an ear shape. Since then, people have learned to make the food which became known as "dumpling". Today there is still a saying that goes "Eat dumplings on Start of Winter Day, or your ears will be frostbitten".


張仲景將羊肉,辣椒以及驅寒提熱的藥材煮熟,包在耳朵狀的面皮中。此后,老百姓也開始模仿制作這種“耳朵狀”食物即現在被大家熟知的餃子。直到今天,仍有“立冬不端餃子碗,凍掉耳朵沒人管”的說法。






Yifan Festival of Mulam Ethnic Minority


仫佬族的依飯節


Yifan Festival is one of the most important festivals of the Mulam ethnic minority in Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region. It is held around the Start of Winter every three to five years and lasts one to three days. The festival includes inviting the god, offering sacrifices, asking the god to enjoy the sacrifice, singing praise of the god, drinking wine with the blood of chicken, and sending the god off.


依飯節是生活在廣西壯族自治區的一個少數民族仫佬族的最重要節日之一,在立冬前后舉行。依飯節每三年到五年舉辦一次,每次持續一到三天,主要儀式包括請圣,牲祭神靈,勸神,唱神,合兵(參加祭祀者將雞血滴于酒碗中飲用,祈求神靈保護)以及送神。








Nourishing the winter


食補


On the first day of Start of Winter, there is a custom, "nourishing the winter", in Southeast China in places such as Fujian, Guangdong and Taiwan provinces. To prepare for the oncoming cold winter, people there like to eat high-calorie food such as chicken, duck, beef, mutton, and fish, which are usually stewed with the four Chinese medicines: angelica, ligusticum wallichii, Chinese herbaceous peony and rehmannia glutinosa libosch, to enhance the effectiveness of the nourishment.


在中國東南部的一些地方比如福建、廣東、臺灣等地,流行在立冬這一天“食補”。人們食用雞鴨魚肉以及牛羊肉等高熱量的食物,為即將到來的寒冬做準備。在烹煮時通常會加入中國傳統的四味中藥:當歸,川芎,芍藥以及地黃來增加食物的食補功效。








Eating Chinese pumpkins


吃倭瓜餃子


In Tianjin, on the first day of Start of Winter, people eat dumplings stuffed with Chinese pumpkins (wogua). It is a common vegetable in North China. Generally, the pumpkins are bought in the summer and stored until the Start of Winter when they are taken out.


在天津,人們會在“立冬”這一天吃倭瓜餡包的餃子。倭瓜是中國北方一種很常見的蔬菜。通常人們會在夏天買了倭瓜儲存下來專門等到“立冬”這一天食用。








Eating tuanzi in Wuxi


無錫人吃團子


On the first day of Start of Winter, people in Wuxi have a custom of eating tuanzi, a kind of traditional Chinese food made with rice. At this time, the autumn grain crops have just been sold on the market, and the tuanzi made by the newly-harvested crops tastes delicious. Most rural residents make tuanzi by themselves, while urban residents buy ready-made tuanzi. The tuanzi stuffing can be sweet bean paste, radish or lard.


無錫人在“立冬”這一天有食團子的習俗。團子是一種由糯米制成的中國傳統美食。每年冬天當年秋收的谷物一上市,市民就買來新鮮的谷物制作團子,吃起來口齒留香。現在,生活在農村的村民還會自制團子,不過城市的居民一般都是買現成的團子。團子的口味各不相同,有甜紅豆餡,也有蘿卜或是豬油餡。








Offering sacrifices to ancestors


祭祖


The Start of Winter, when the autumn crops have been placed in storage, was the time of the festival for the people of the Manchu Eight Banners and Han Eight Banners in Benxi of Liaoning province. Incense was burned and sacrifices offered to ancestors. The Eight Banners (baqi) were administrative/military divisions during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911).


“立冬”表示秋糧已入庫,這個季節就是遼寧本溪當地滿族八旗和漢八旗人家燒香祭祖的節日。八旗制度是中國清代(公元1644-1911年)的行政以及軍事制度。


關于中國傳統文化“立冬”你可能不知道的8件事所屬專題:立冬專題 冬天專題 祭祖專題 冬眠專題 本文《關于中國傳統文化“立冬”你可能不知道的8件事》鏈接:http://www.zedulm.tw/jierixisu/8773.html
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